In 1973, the historian Arnold Toynbee was frightened by the prospect of the possible self-destruction of humanity. In contrast, after the fall of the Iron Curtain and the victory of Western liberal democracy, Francis Fukuyama in 1989 claimed the end of history. At the end of the second decade of the twenty-first century we assess that neither of the two alternatives is the case and that we do need to talk again about dignity and Human Rights.