Fermentation has long been used in food production as a way of enhancing and increasing the performance of food. Several food products of historical significance that consumers use regularly today – alcohol, vinegar, cheese and bread, for example – are products of biotechnology. Recent advances in the underlying processes have facilitated the expansion of biotechnology in the food industry, notably in relation to enzymes found in different microorganisms. This chapter explores the implications of these developments in the global markets for kosher and halal food.