In 1901, Charles Frederick Gurney Masterman, a journalist and a Liberal MP who worked with Lloyd George and Winston Churchill to engineer the Liberal welfare reforms of 1906–1914, and head of the British War Propaganda Bureau during World War I, edited a collection of essays by eminent British writers, entitled The Heart of Empire. Discussions of Problems of Modern City Life in England. The book expressed his sentiment that the modern age had fallen short of the humanitarian purpose of the Victorians and that empire was harming progress on domestic issues:

it is the day of other and noisier enthusiasms—the lust of dominion, the pride in magnitude of Empire; delight in rule over alien nations, commercial aggrandisement, and dissatisfaction with anything short of predominance in the councils of the world. (4)