This chapter provides the reader with a basic introduction to hypothesis testing using the simple one-sample case for means and proportions. Readers are provided with the steps for conducting a hypothesis test, such as specifying null and alternative hypotheses, calculation of the test statistic, determination of the p-value, and writing a conclusion within the context of the hypothesis being tested. The tables provide the necessary equations for one-sample tests for the mean when the population variance is known (standard normal distribution) and unknown (t-distribution). The end of the chapter provides a basic introduction to power and sample size calculations in the one-sample hypothesis setting, complete with formulas for one-sided and two-sided hypothesis tests. All four possible outcomes of a hypothesis test are discussed, and readers are introduced to the type I error and the type II error, one of which may occur when the outcome of a hypothesis does not match the truth. Figures are used to show the reader how the power of a one-sample test for means is calculated and what it means in relation to the four possible outcomes of a hypothesis test.