This chapter examines the various ways that agriculture has been evaluated in environmental thought. It begins by examining critiques of agriculture as the root cause of the ecological crisis, including the argument famously put forward by Lynn White, Jr. in the journal Science (1967). It then moves to explore arguments in environmental ethics related to specific aspects of industrial agriculture. It concludes by evaluating alternative forms of agriculture that are considered by their proponents to be more ecological and to provide a promising paradigm for connecting people to the land.