The chapter introduces the context for the discussions appearing in the subsequent chapters. It outlines the panorama of institutions dealing with contemporary art in the region before 1989 and the necessary changes they faced in order to meet the challenges of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, which are an important reference point for all recently established institutions. Further in the chapter, I mention new investments in individual countries, showing their number and place on the map of Central Europe. Finally, I present the condition of contemporary museums and art centers in the region. I discuss the changes taking place, the challenges they face, and the durability of the museum boom in this area.