As we have seen in the previous chapters, there have been obstacles, barriers, movement forward—and backward—with respect to racial progress and establishing equality, even in the context of racial oppression. People who have been denied social and legal opportunity and access still strive to be productive. People, regardless of their race or social status, want to be happy and contribute to society and their families. Most worry about life and its challenges and are afraid about things that are beyond their control. People get upset and dismayed when others do not treat them with respect or treat them unfairly or act in biased ways toward them—because Americans, for the most part, are taught to believe in the idea of fairness and equality. What is not clear is whether Americans are willing to act on the principles of fairness and equality.