In directing the reader’s attention for a few moments to the development of Co-operative agriculture in Italy, it is a pleasure no less than a duty to acknowledge with gratitude that most of the information contained in this section of our study was obtained directly from an unpublished study of Signor Aillaud, one of the Italian representatives at the International Labour Office, Geneva. In his monograph Signor Aillaud thus describes the three chief types of Co-operative agriculture in Italy, after showing how the emergence of each is the direct result of natural conditions: