It is usual in Italy to classify together Co-operative societies for labour and production. Of these the former section is by far the more important and more successful. It would be true to say that, on the whole, purely producers’ associations are small, weak and of transient existence. The combined labour societies have, as we have seen, vast organisations with huge membership. They have performed colossal works of drainage, road-making, bridge-building, etc., in all parts of Italy. The builders’ societies, too, closely connected with the Trade Unions, are of similar magnitude. The combined Metal-Workers’ societies, especially during the War, attained vast dimensions. We shall trace presently the development of the glass-blowing industry in Co-operative hands and shall see that, in that direction, too, Co-operative production in Italy has been very successful. We must mention, too, the success that has been won by Co-operative Printing societies. In various parts of Italy Co-operative bakeries have a considerable development and there are a few large tailoring works. But after a careful tour of the chief centres and a detailed examination of reports and balance sheets we are compelled to admit that industrial production in Italy has not, in Co-operative hands, attained to anything approaching the importance of private undertakings similarly engaged. Nor can it in any way be compared with the vast productive organisation managed by the English Consumers’ Movement.