One of the most remarkable manifestations of Islam on the international level as a result of the domestic upheaval it created after 1989 has been its new worldwide thrust of expansion, both demographically and culturally, as a way to strengthen its actual presence in the West, especially Europe, with a view of seeking dominance there. At stake has been the third Muslim invasion in Europe, which refers to the historical sequel whereby the first invasion into Europe was made by the Arabs in the seventh century from the south, when they launched the onslaught from Morocco on southern Europe until they were arrested by the Charles Martel victory in 732 near Poitiers, and the eight centuries of Muslim rule in Andalusia that ended with their final retreat from Grenada in 1492, under the relentless advance of the Spanish Reconquista.