The Peace which had been practically settled in 1546, though it was only finally signed in 1547 at the end of a long truce, left all the three sovereigns concerned free to engage in other enterprises. For Charles V it meant that he was at liberty to turn against the Protestant malcontents of Germany; the two campaigns of 1546 and 1547 ended with his complete victory at Mühlberg on April 24, 1547, and the capture or surrender of the rebellious princes. Ferdinand had been involved in the same matter, for his Bohemian subjects had been concerned in the Protestant rising and had taken the field against him. He too was victorious. Sultan Soliman was able to take in hand a long-projected Persian War, which he had been obliged to postpone so long as he was engaged with the two Hapsburgs. Francis of France, who had put in his assent to the treaty, though he was not at the moment at war with the Emperor, turned at leisure to the burning of Lutherans at home, and the massacre of the Vaudois on his Alpine frontier. He died before 1547 ran out, as did his old rival, Henry VIII of England. The unwonted condition of peace on all the European frontiers of the great powers was destined to last only till 1551.