Coal is the largest source of energy in China. In 2015, coal accounted for 64% of China’s total primary energy consumption. China is the world’s largest coal producer and consumer. In 2015, China accounted for 48% of coal production and 50% of coal consumption in the world (BP, 2016). From 1949 to 2015, China’s annual coal production increased 117 times, from 32 million to 3.75 billion metric tons. The trajectory of growth largely followed an exponential curve with two major deviations: the Great Leap Forward (1958–1961) and the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis (Figure 3.1).