The final chapter of this book engages with the ‘real world’ of translation as a professional practice in different situations and in sites of potential conflict. We will first discuss the role of translation in multilingual institutions such as the European Union, multicultural societies and minority and migrant groups, and then take up (again) the topic of ethics in translation practice, extending it to translation in areas of conflict and war as well as the increasing role of citizen media involving ad hoc translation. Finally, we will look at a type of translation which is fast growing in importance today: audiovisual translation.