This chapter deals with those aspects of British Imperial trade policy which directly affect foreign countries. It includes a review of changes in policy since about 1860, special attention being directed to recent developments, particularly the Ottawa Agreements and the question of the open door in relation to Imperial Preference. Policies which only indirectly affect foreign countries or which are essentially internal affairs of the Empire are excluded. Thus the recent Anglo-Irish trade war, resulting from strained political relations, and the economic settlement reached at the end of 1934 by the Governments of Great Britain and of the Irish Free State are not reviewed.