It has been the argument of this book that Lorca became a modernist in the international sense of the word through a process of askesis, in which he learned to excise his most personal concerns from the poem and, simultaneously, to move away from an older mode of making poetry that had been discredited by the avant-garde. The result was a particularly fine synthesis of the old and the new which many critics have considered the hallmark of the Generation of 1927. Although ‘inwardness’ and poetic reverie, or anything smacking of confessionalism, were no longer fashionable after futurism, Lorca did not abandon these modes so much as turn an ironic eye on that part of himself that longed to give in to the expressive release this way of writing poetry afforded. A major poetic shift took place in Lorca’s writing in the years 1920–23, as he sought to renew himself and leave behind a stage of apprenticeship to modernismo.