ABSTRACT

In Terry v. Ohio (1968:4), Chief Justice Earl Warren considered “the role of the Fourth Amendment in the confrontation on the street between the citizen and the policeman.” Prior to Terry, the average citizen had little recourse against abuse by street-level bureaucrats. Later, in 1980, Michael Lipsky’s book Street-Level Bureaucracy formalized the street-level concept and brought it to the forefront of public administrative study. This chapter concerns the role of the courts in street-level encounters between bureaucrats and the public.