A rationalized, centralized, planned city in which sexual partnerships are determined by number. A separatist matriarchy which places the ideals of nurture and care at the centre of its social value-system, yet banishes its male progeny. A pedagogical province peopled by young girls, who care for each other but also train each other to serve the brutal needs of an entertainment system. A futurist mega-state which regulates and contains the sexual desires of its citizens from infancy, conditioning them for promiscuity. A highly developed economy whose female citizens have internalized eugenicist values. A communitarian island society which practises ‘deep freeze and artificial insemination’ to improve its genetic heritage. These are some of the solutions proposed for the regulation of sex, gender and reproduction in utopian and dystopian fictions of the twentieth century.