This study of India’s march toward sustainable development (SD), including other millennium goals, is carried out at two levels—conceptual and empirical. For the purpose of the study, SD is treated as a key concept in social sciences and as a challenging process in governance everywhere. As a concept, SD signifies human endeavors for the realization of the development ideals and goals of intergenerational equity, intergenderal equity, and intranational and international equity. As a multidimensional concept, SD entails ecological, socioeconomic, and politicocultural sustainability.