In 1916, writing against what he saw as the excesses of the Americanization program for new immigrants, the journalist and cultural essayist Randolph Bourne called for a “Trans-national America.” He envisioned the United States as a country populated by nationals with strong emotional ties to their countries of origin or, for immigrants, their home countries. In this new world, they would be united as Americans primarily by the fact that they were “international citizens.”