The “failure” we mentioned in the previous chapter is concerned with a very important problem in village development: factionalism. The principles of community development have been devised in the belief that organized group effort is a very efficient means of galvanizing rural communities. Although much fine work has been accomplished in the United States by this means, as well as in some nonindustrialized countries, there have been serious problems also. One of the most basic questions that is rarely asked is, “Is the rural village of Asia, Africa, or Latin America really a co-operative unit?”