T H E F I E L D of communication is concerned w i t h human relatedness. Every person, plant, animal, and object emits signals which, when perceived, convey a message to the receiver. Th i s message changes the information of the receiver and hence may alter his behavior. Change i n behavior of the receiver, i n tu rn , may or may not perceptibly influence the sender. Sometimes the effect of a message is immediate; at other times the message and its effect are so far apart i n t ime and space that the observer fails to connect the two events. For purposes of our presentation however, we shall be concerned more w i t h the immediate effects of messages and their influence upon the behavior of people,

I n order to familiarize the reader w i t h the varieties of human communication, let us view the experiences of M r . A as he proceeds w i t h his daily activities. I n the morning when M r . A enters his office he reads his incoming mai l (wri t ten communicat ion) . I n sorting his mai l he encounters a number of pamphlets which are designed to describe the merits of various business machines (pictorial communication). Through the open window the faint noise of a radio is heard, as the voice of an announcer clearly praises the qual i ty of a brand of toothpaste (spoken com-


munication). When his secretary enters the room she gives h i m a cheerful "good morn ing / ' which he acknowledges w i t h a friendly nod of his head (gestural communication) whi le he continues w i th his conversation on the telephone (spoken communication) w i t h a business associate. Later i n the morn ing he dictates a number of letters to his secretary, then he holds a committee meeting (group communication), where he gathers the advice of his associates. I n this meeting a number of new governmental regulations (mass communication) and their effect upon the policies of the firm are discussed. Later i n the meeting a resolution to the employees of the firm concerning the annual bonus (mass and group communication) is considered. After the> committee has adjourned, M r . A , engaged i n thoughts concerning unfinished business (communication w i t h self), slowly crosses the street to his restaurant for lunch. On the way he sees his friend M r . B, who i n a great hurry enters the same luncheon place (communication through action), and M r . A decides to sit by himself rather than to j o i n his friend, who w i l l probably gulp down his coffee and hurry on (communication w i t h self). Whi l e waiting, M r . A studies the menu (communication through pr inted word) but the odor of a juicy steak deflects his gaze (chemical communication); i t is so appetizing that he orders one himself. After lunch he decides to buy a pair of gloves. He enters a men's store and w i t h the tips of his fingers carefully examines the various qualities of leather (communication through touch). After leisurely concluding the purchase, he decides to take the afternoon off and to escort his son on a promised t r ip to the zoo. O n the way there, John, watching his father drive through the streets, asks h i m why he always stops at a red l ight and why he does not stop at a green l ight (communication by visual symbol). As they approach the zoo, an ambulance screams down the street, and M r . A pulls over to the side of the road and stops (communication by sound). As they sit there he explains to his son that the church across the street is the oldest i n the state, bu i l t many years ago, and st i l l standing as a landmark i n the community (communication through material culture). After paying admission to the zoo (communication through action), they leisurely stroll over to visit the elephants. Here John laughs

at one of the spectators (communication through action), sending h i m into near flight. Later on i n the afternoon M r . A yields to the pressure of his son, and they enter a movie house to see a cartoon (communication through pictures). A r r i v i n g home, M r . A dresses i n order to attend a formal dinner and theater performance (communication through the arts).