American social thinkers, beginning with Ward and James, pointed out that while it was incontestable that genetic forces determined social interaction, it was equally true that teleological forces affected conduct. In his Dynamic Sociology of 1883, Ward argued that all social action involves efforts to attain desired ends, and such ends are present in the mind before action is attempted. 1 He argued, too, that we must think of interaction in society in terms of action, not process, force, or motion. And the kind of action most characteristic of man in society is invention and art.