it is common to distinguish between causal and symptomatic therapies. A therapy is considered causal if the known etiology of an illness is being treated and symptomatic if its manifestations are the objects of the treatment process. Since the etiologies of the most important psychiatric illnesses have remained basically unknown, the symptomatic therapies are the best available in present-day psychiatry. These are psychotherapy, behavior therapy, and the physical therapies (including pharmacotherapy).