In spite of the misgivings of Samuel Smiles, charitable giving by the Victorians remained impressively high. Charity was, however, directed towards work rather than leisure, and towards industriousness rather than art. It is estimated that during the 1860s donations to charity amounted to more than £7,000,000 annually in London alone, a figure not far short of the total Poor Law expenditure for the whole of England and Wales, and it rose steadily in each decade. But charity had a clearly defined role in the overall scheme of things. It was not loosely scattered amongst 'good causes', of varying merit, but firmly steered towards those who were thought able to profit by it. Whereas expenditure under the Poor Law was for the totally poor and destitute, who were 'beyond charity', charitable giving was targeted on the indigent, who were (in theory at any rate) able with such assistance to increase their labouring skills, move to where new employment was available, live more frugally or simply work harder. The sanctimonious added that the merely indigent - unlike paupers - thus showed their value to society by being the cause of charitable actions in others.