THE CONSCIENTIOUS and efficient conduct of new work in Japan was a task which presented the most perplexing difficulties both to employers and em­ ployed. Their high pay, their different mode ofliving, their want of disciplinary power, and the knowledge of the Japanese that foreigners were more or less indis­ pensable to them, rendered their European assistants most impracticable and difficult to deal with. Resigna­ tion, insubordination, absence from duty, drunken­ ness and other aberrations of conduct among Euro­ peans employed in the Japanese Government service, became frequent and distressing. On the other hand, the semi-ignorance of the native servants of the Emperor, and the self-esteem, untrustworthiness , craftiness and corruption of the Japanese underlings rendered cooperation by an honourable foreigner with them extremely irritating.