A common feature of manufacturing control and improvement techniques such as MRPII, OPT,]IT and TQM is that they all require the adoption of new ways of working. Each requires the introduction of discipline, clarification of roles and responsibilities, and the fostering of a culture of co-operation rather than conflict. To be successful, the way people think and behave must be changed. Perspectives must be broadened, whilst still requiring attention to detail. All employees must become willing to contribute to the solution of a problem, even if they personally are not feeling any of the pain it causes. It is not surprising that successful implementation of all four techniques requires heavy investment in education and training in order to develop commitment and understanding at all levels in the organisation.