They have mastered story structure and the notion of a problem or conflict of some kind to propel the story along. The teacher has worked with them in a small group with the objective of improving their writing style in the ways in which they open and close their stories. She decided to use real authors' writing to help them and the photo album has samples of beginnings and endings of stories, on which they can model their own. Each extract is described in 'child-friendly' language at the side. Three beginnings are shown below.