It should perhaps not be a surprise that ‘the European dimension’ remains a considerable enigma within the National Curriculum framework. For the obvious paradox of a European dimension in a national framework may be but a reflection of the disquiet and ambivalence within the present Conservative government (and, it must be said, within British society) about a commitment to Europe. In this chapter we start by considering what concept children have of Europe. We then consider what does actually constitute Europe in the late twentieth century. It is a phenomenon which is changing (as it always has done) more rapidly than ever before. Having established that European identity is a key aspect of the child’s

developing sense of self in society, we consider possible ways of approaching European studies within the primary curriculum. In conclusion we look in brief at the approach to humanities in the primary schools of other European countries and we review the joint implications of these last three chapters what does it mean to have a humanities curriculum which is based on commitments to citizenship, the environment and Europe? In this consideration we again emphasise the necessity of avoiding Eurocentrism and the need for establishing an understanding of international, global interdependence.