There are two different ways we can approach the problem of children with reading and spelling difficulties. The first is to identify the nature of the difficulty so that we can try to discover what is causing it and develop appropriate teaching strategies to help overcome it. The second is to prevent children from ever becoming backward readers in the first place. If we have some idea what is causing the problem we can find ways of preparing children before they go to school so that they can cope with reading and writing when they get there.