The previous three chapters examined the extent to which programmes designed to realize a new form of environmental governance have fared in the crucible of practice. We compared the track record of these programmes in realizing NEG ideals of collaboration, participatory engagement as well as accountability and adaptive learning, with the record of NEG initiatives elsewhere. On the basis of this analysis we extracted lessons, in the form of design principles, for realizing these ideals. In this chapter, we revisit the foundational ideal of collaboration and examine it from another angle. We have already examined how this foundation can be laid. We now turn to the equally important issue of how it can best be maintained.