The aim of this chapter is to evaluate various policies intended to reduce fertility in less developed countries by means of changing peoples’ in­ come and wealth. Income and wealth invite consideration as social con­ trol variables because economic status always matters. They seem to be related to almost every aspect of a society-its patterns of production and consumption, its attitudes, and its health and mortality, as well as its fertility. But just how income and wealth are related to fertility is ex­ ceedingly complex.1 After an analysis of the income-fertility relation­ ship, the ways in which countries might intervene in the relationship in order to influence fertility will be considered.