EARLY HISTORY Most of these archeological ruins-cliff dwellings and pueblos, thousands of them-are in the Southwest, mostly in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. Some of them were of course seen early by the Spaniards. Father Kino was said to have seen the Casa Grande ruin, in the Gila River Valley of Arizona, as early as 1694, and the Spanish Franciscan missionary and explorer, Escalante, saw and reported on large and conspicuous ruins in 1775-a year before the Declaration of Independence. The

Spaniards massacred Navajos in Cafion del Muerto of what is now Canyon de Chelly National Monument in 1805, and very likely knew of the ruins earlier than this. Beginning in 1859, various men visited and explored parts of the Mesa Verde area.