Almost the entire membership of the OAU achieved independence in the period from 1956 (when Sudan became independent) to 1993 (when Eritrea became the 52nd member of the OAU). As a consequence of this time span the continent’s independence struggles, whether they consisted only of political agitation or were violent wars of resistance to colonial control, remain very much a part of immediate historical consciousness and political memory. This immediacy was attested to through the 1960s and 1970s, when no African leader delivered a speech of any importance without referring to the struggle against colonialism and imperialism. Even though such references had become rare by the year 2000, especially as a new generation of politicians - many of whom had not experienced the struggle - had come to power, it only required a confrontation with one of the former metropolitan powers over trade, invest­ ment, aid, or the treatment of minorities to call forth accusations of unwar­ ranted meddling in Africa’s affairs - in other words, neocolonialism.