My study at the New York City (NYC) site occurred during the early 1990s when process approaches to writing were flourishing. The Teachers College Writing Project at Columbia University, New York, had successfully negotiated with several NYC public schools to allow trainers from the project to work with several schools in the boroughs of Manhattan and Queens. Under the direction of Lucy Calkins, the project featured summer institutes for teachers and hands-on training in which members of the project modeled approaches to writing with students in NYC classrooms. Teachers had opportunities to implement practices, be observed by project trainers, and discuss their practices with the trainers and other teachers. The school in which I conducted my study had the full support of the principal, and several teachers were implementing the project.