The research methods for this study were selected based on "what intended users want to know, the purpose of the study, the funds available, the political context, and the interests / abilities / biases of the researcher" (Patton, 1990, p. 196). Based on the research question, purpose of the study, the researcher, and the potential use of the results a qualitative method or naturalistic inquiry was chosen. One of the main characteristics of qualitative research is the focus on intensive study of a specific instance [i.e., a specific case] of a phenomenon (Patton, 1990). The phenomenon of interest for this research being the selection of training as a means to improve employee performance in an organization. The focus of this research required an intensive study of processes and meanings. The study focused on how something happened rather than how often or how long. Because the focus was simply how, the study could not be rigorously examined or measured in terms of quantity, amount, intensity, or frequency-hence a qualitative approach (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994).