Modern democratic Ukraine has existed as an independent nation for a very short time, having declared its independence on August 24,1991. Current developments in education must be discussed within the context of history and the legacy of the totalitarian educational systems dictated by one philosophical orientation and one ideology, namely Marxism-Leninism. Past social and political reality in Ukraine, especially from 1925 through the 1970s, was characterized by intense Russification, totalitarian "partiynost," and centralization, as well as dominance of all aspects of life by the single ideology. In the former Soviet Union, all aspects of life were totally and rigidly controlled by the Communist party. For political, philosophical, and ideological reasons, the party paid special attention to education and teacher preparation. To understand current issues and problems of Ukrainian education is impossible without some knowledge of the historical background. The magnitude of this need may be understood if we consider that all educational personnel currently employed, from kindergarten teachers to members of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, have been indoctrinated with one political philosophy. A review of the historical background is, therefore, crucial.