The use of drugs and other mood-altering substances has characterized most societies throughout human history (Goodman, Lovejoy, and Sherratt, 1995; Westermeyer, 1995). The Afrocentric paradigm of human ser-- vice does not view the use of drugs as inherently disruptive to human and societal relationships (Christmon, 1995; Schiele, 1996). It does, however, conceive the excessive use or abuse of drugs as problematic and as a destructive force not only for the individual but also for the individual's immediate and wider social environment. But, the Afrocentric paradigm would tolerate and recognize the importance of using mood-altering sub-- stances for significant social events, such as rituals, ceremonies, or other important social occasions. The point here is that given the Afrocentric paradigm's holistic viewpoint, and its acknowledgment of the multiple sources that shape human behavior, it would not assume or promote a hard-line view on drug use. Both Christmon (1995) and Lusane (1991) maintain that drug use in many traditional African societies was sanc-- tioned if it did not compromise the individual's capacity to optimally function socially and contribute to the collective survival and advance-- ment of the community.