Needless to say, there is much more to the achievement of standards than the specification and measurement o f OCLs. Students must be given all the help that is needed to achieve the standards set, and one cannot assume that con­ ventional teaching approaches will do so. For example, it is no longer accept­ able to identify objectives and then simply grade student performance against these. Within a behaviourist approach students are expected to strive to achieve specified objectives in full, and conventional teaching and testing leading to the grading of students is not appropriate for this purpose. The second part of the book is therefore concerned with how students might be helped to achieve these standards through the design and development of instructional materials for OCLs. Although the emphasis is on the design and development of materials, these are intended to encourage students to become actively involved in a behaviourist approach to learning, particularly through projects and related activities, and the principles highlighted in describing the approach may be readily adopted within any behaviourist approach to teaching and testing.