The coup d'état of August 1937 set up a government headed by Jamil al-Midfa'i who, despite being a moderate and willing to cooperate with Britain, was popular among pan-Arab circles. 1 During his tenure of office, the pan-Arab trend grew stronger. It became dominant among the modern middle class: anti-British sentiment shared by the nationalists and the officer corps was now augmented by bitterness at Britain's unsatisfactory response to Iraq's demands for arms supplies. 2