The greatest change in Tanzania's economic and social structure resulted from the villagization programme. From 1973 to 1975 nine million people were resettled (Mapolu 1985, pp. 119 f.; Coulson 1982, pp. 235 ff.). As the rural population showed little inclination to participate voluntarily in the establishment of ujamaa villages and progress in bringing the people together in villages was slow, they were subjected to increasing pressure and coercion. To accelerate resettlement, it was even decided not to press ahead with collective farming, and "ujamaa villages" became known as "development villages". Production in the communal fields that were created in every village never exceeded 1 % of total output (Sijm 1990, p. 42). Peasant production based on traditional land use rights, or land use rights allocated by the new village administration, continued to form the backbone of domestic production. The role and function of the villages was defined and strengthened in the Village and Ujamaa Act passed in 1975. Besides taking on important administrative tasks, they were in particular permitted to plan and undertake economic activities as independent legal entities (Abrahams, ed., 1987).