These propaganda efforts soon produced remarkable results. By mid-1831 some 40,000 persons had joined the sect.4 Among them were many of France's most eminent intellectuals, including such important theorists as Cabet, Reynaud, Buchez, Pecqueur, Blanqui, and Louis Blanc. The doctrine was also very popular among the literary and artistic community, whose members were greatly impressed by the Saint-Simonian conception of the artist's role in society. Such major writers as Maxime du Camp, Renouvier, Renan, Sainte-Beuve, Lamennais, Georges Sand, and Beranger, and the composers Berlioz, Liszt, and Felicien David were attracted to the new religion. And Saint-Simonism was also the main inspiration behind the Young German school of literature which flourished during the early 1830s (with Heinrich Heine as one of its most active members), and which soon succeeded in arousing widespread enthusiasm for the Saint-Simonian doctrine among German radicals.