Further influences in this shift in public taste arose from the increasing extent to which ordinary men and women were exposed to the printed word, and from the increasing opportunities to acquire a basic measure of education - education to the extent, at least, of achieving an ability to read. It is difficult to escape the conclusion that from these developments would stem a feeling that reading, at all levels of society, was becoming a more private experience; and the chapbook would be very much more personal to the reader than the broadside, which was often pasted up in a public place, or on the wall inside a house.