This chapter analyses China's security interests in relation to the changes that have occurred in Russia in recent years. It touches on certain aspects of China's political security, a subject which has been neglected by most writings on Beijing's security when dealing with the decline of Russia as a threat. The demise of the Soviet Union, once an arch-enemy, is a gain for China as far as military security is concerned. However, more important is the fact that the collapse of communism in the former Soviet Union raises issues of political security for Chinese leaders. Therefore, it is very important to analyse the impact events in 1989, 1990 and 1991 had on China's security agenda. This chapter first looks at the diminished Russian military threat from China's perspective. It goes on to explore China's economic relations with Russia. This is followed by assessments of the impact of the collapse of Soviet communism on China's official ideology.