In 1849 when British rule was established along its eastern border the highland area of Waziristan was inhabited by a number of independent tribal groups, the principal ones being the Mahsuds, Wazirs, Bhittanis and Dawars. The Mahsuds mostly lived in the mountainous valleys in the centre and south. To the west and north of them were the Wazirs, and to the east, towards the plains of the Derajat, the Bhittanis, while the Dawars lived to the north-east in the lower Tochi valley. Further to the north some of the Wazirs came into contact with the Bangash villagers of the Upper Miranzai valley. Mostly cultivators or pastoral nomads, or both, a few of them also mined and smelted iron from which they made cooking utensils, knives, horseshoes, and nails. Larger numbers made matting, sandals and rope from the dwarf-palm. These, as well as iron, and timber from the forests which still covered the western hills, they sold in the markets in the plains. Some of the tribesmen, Mahsuds in particular, were also raiders.