The 'evil' of the 'Jew', in the above story was further defined as 'immorality' and 'avariciousness'. In the eyes of Zhang and many other Chinese, these negative qualities were exactly the perception of Western opium traders. Now if the 'Jews' can be seen as Western opium traders, then the 'Jews' must possess these negative qualities. Thus, the Western anti-Semitic image of greedy, immoral and money-loving 'Jews' was adopted by Zhang Deyi and his Chinese readers.