Unfortunately, even such moderate travel demand had been fully prohibited for nearly three decades after the Chinese people 'stood up', though the travel traditions of the elite of the society were largely maintained.2 Till the mid-1970s, religious practices and pilgrimage were forbidden on ideological grounds. Subject to rigid controls through such measures as the so-called hukou, or household registration systems, individual private travels were hardly possible.3 As a result, the mobility of the Chinese society in the pre-reform period was minimal. Pleasure-seeking travels remained unknown to most urban Chinese, let alone the earth-bound Chinese peasantry. One exception was the travel activities of family-visits during Chinese Spring Festival.