ABSTRACT

I discuss these passages in the order in which they are treated by Horovitz (1926, pp.l0-14), who with some slight variations follows Noldeke's chronology. However, my approach is quite different from that of Horovitz, who rarely goes beyond linguistic observations to ask how these passages illuminate Muhammad's situation. For all but the last, rather longer passage (51:24-46) I have included a translation, but this will clearly not be practical when dealing with the considerably longer punishment-narratives from the middle and late Meccan periods.