Under a reform introduced in 1872, the Azhari syllabus was divided into two categories comprising, all in all, eleven obligatory subjects. There were, on the one hand, subjects wanted per se, such as jurisprudence (fiqh) and Qur'anic exegesis (tajsfr), and, on the other, instrumental subjects such as grammar, morphology and logic.14 The former were to be studied for their own sake, whereas the latter were to be pursued only to the extent that they served as tools for studying subjects per se. 15 This list was widened under another reform which was introduced in 1896 at the instigation of Mul;tammad 'Abduh. Twelve more subjects, partly modern ones, were added, but this enlargement, as may be seen from the two following tables, 16 did not modifY in any substantial way the basic structure.