In the context of classical Islamic civilization the name "philosophy" (alfalsafah or al-f:tikmah) is reserved for a particular set of disciplines associated with the well-known schools of "Islamic philosophy" such as the Peripatetic (mashsha 'I), Illuminationist (ishraql) and the like, and not other schools, like theology (Kalam), which often deal with philosophic ideas but are not officially recognized as "philosophy".l Therefore the title of "philosopher" (al-faylasuj) is usually reserved for those who are masters of the doctrines of one of these' 'philosophical" schools with all the different ramifications and nuances that various branches of these schools contain. Considered in this light, Blrunlhas never been classified by classical authors as a "philosopher" , nor associataed with one of the well-known schools of traditional Islamic philosophy. But if we understand philosophy in its more general sense as logical and rational discourse upon the nature of things, then Biruni must certainly be considered as a philosopher of note to be studied for his significance in the general context of Islamic intellectual history and also for the innate value of his intellectual vision. Of course he is still a traditional philosopher, even if not a member of the well established schools, for profane and secular philosophy simply did not exist in Islamic civilization and certainly would not have concerned such a profoundly religious man as BIrunI even had it existed.