A debate on global justice, global institutions and global citizenship is especially relevant at the present moment. The context of the end of the Cold War, the contested process of economic, political and social-cultural globalisation and changing relationships between citizens and their governments within nation-states provide a background to the present debate. For some time optimism has been expressed about the growing sense of global responsibility that is shown by both the international community and by global civil society. Examples often mentioned are the increased willingness of states to contribute to international intervention and punishment in cases of human rights violations and international regime-building to cope with global environmental change. Some view these developments as indicators of a form of global citizenship developing, whereas others see them merely as an illustration of the need to develop stronger global institutions.